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General information

General Information

Location

The Republic of N. Macedonia is located in Southeast Europe, in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. It has a position of a strategic crossroad and some kind of a bridge between Europe and the nearby countries of Asia and North Africa. The Republic of North Macedonia belongs to the group of countries from the so-called Western Balkans. It is surrounded by the following neighbors – Serbia and Kosovo to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, and Albania to the west.

General Information

Official name: Republic of North Macedonia

Location: Serbia and Kosovo to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, and Albania to the west.

Area: 25,713 sq. km.

Population: 2,022,547 (census from 2012)

Capital: Skopje, about 600,000 inhabitants

Government: Macedonia is a Parliamentary Republic

Official Language: Macedonian (Southern Slavic language)

Religions: Orthodox Christians 64, 78%; Muslim 33,33%

Country dialing code: +389

Measure units: degree Celsius (ºC), meter (m.), gram (gr.), liter (l.)

Time zone: UTC+1 (CET) Summer time: UTC+2 (CEST)

Government: Macedonia is a Parliamentary Republic

Governance

With a Constitution adopted on 17 November 1991, the Republic of North Macedonia is a sovereign, independent, democratic and social state. The referendum on independence and autonomy, or more precisely separation from the Yugoslav federation, was held on 8 September 1991. The political system is a parliamentary democracy with a president who leads and represents the state at home and abroad

The president of the state, according to the Constitution, is also the commander of the army forces and is the president of the Security Council. The president of the state is elected in general, direct elections. He/she has a mandate of five years and he/she cooperates with the executive power, more precisely with the Government in building, defining and implementing foreign policy. The Government, on the other hand, proposes laws to the Assembly. It defines and proposes the budget, conducts the country’s internal and foreign policy and determines and organizes it. It also monitors the operation of the state administration bodies and the state administration.

Politics

Macedonia was built as a unitary republic. The social component, freedom, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights for all citizens of all ethnic communities are among the main and highest values of the constitutional order. The political system of the Republic of North Macedonia as a parliamentary democracy is based on the principle of the division of power into three branches – legislative, executive and judicial. The Macedonian Assembly is unicameral with 120 MPs elected at direct parliamentary elections every four years. The Assembly elects its own president, who holds a second position in the political hierarchy of the state.

History

The Republic of North Macedonia occupies one part (so called Vardar Macedonia) of the historical and geographical region of Macedonia (nowadays split between Macedonia, Greece and Bulgaria). For the last 10,000 years the entire region has been the cradle of many ancient civilizations, including the first European Neolithic farmers, Ancient Macedonians, Paeonians, Illyrians, and Thracians. In 357 BC Philip II of Macedon conquered the entire region and it remained part of the Macedonian Kingdom until the Roman conquest in 145 BC, when Macedonia was turned to Roman province. After the division of the Roman Empire in 395 AD the region became part of the Eastern Roman Empire. Between 4th and 6th AD the countryside and many wealthy cities of Roman Macedonia suffered from Gothic, Hun, and Avar invasions.

In 1944, North Macedonia was constituted as are public in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The Macedonian language was codified in 1944 based on the Prilep-Bitola dialect. On September 8, 1991, a referendum on independence was held in Macedonia and 74% voted in favour. Thus, in January of 1992, the country declared its full independence from the Former Yugoslavia. Some long period we have problems and with Greece which were delayed diplomatic recognition of Macedonia by demanding that the country find another name, alleging that the term “Macedonia” implies territorial claims on northern Greece (difficult to explain). After some time finally political party which has a majority in government decided to change the name in North Macedonia, regardless of results from the referendum where the people of Macedonia decide to stay and not to vote for changing the name.